CITY AND NATURE COMPLEXITIES THE CASE OF BRISBANE – CITY SERIES #4

What is the relationship of city and nature?

People is obliged to nature to live, and there is a constant interaction with nature throughout his/her life. Therefore, while we are designing the city, we should not harm it, we should appreciate it. We should design according to nature. 

This photo is taken from Ali Rad Yousefnia’ presentation
This phrase actually explains the relationship between nature and the city very clearly. Nature already hints at how we should design. The important thing here is how much we follow the clues given by nature.
This photo is taken from Ali Rad Yousefnia’ presentation
For example, when we look at this photo, we see that the design and nature are very compatible with each other. Not only to protect the green area, but also to evaluate other opportunities offered by nature, such as sunlight and topography.

When we look at the gardens of different countries, we can see different approaches to nature more clearly.
In these three photos we can see more clearly the different approaches. These are Chinese gardens, French gardens, and Persian gardens. 

How are garden and agriculture linked?
Water is the most essential for both of them. When we do research, we see that many books and articles have been written on this subject.

Aqueduct of Valens is a good example to aqueduct bridge. Aqueduct bridges constructed to convey watercourses, and also they are used as transport links.

This photo is taken from Ali Rad Yousefnia’ presentation
In arid regions, structures created to collect their water are called qanats.
This photo is taken from Ali Rad Yousefnia’ presentation
This photo is taken from Ali Rad Yousefnia’ presentation

Also, water can be used as transportation. Maritime Routes is one of the example. It can be used for commercial circulation. There are many routes, but North America, Europe, Pacific are interconnected by water transport.

This photo is taken from: https://porteconomicsmanagement.org/pemp/contents/part1/interoceanic-passages/main-maritime-shipping-routes/

We can see the model of Ephesus. I can make a connection at this point with Dr. Martin’s presentation. Ephesus’s connection with the sea was a very important advantage and the development of the city was entirely based on this connection. The existence of water transportation made it a very important trade center. Also, ruins of Harireh, and Ab anbar are other important examples to show the relation between water and transportation.

This photo is taken from Ali Rad Yousefnia’ presentation

From these maps we can understand how important water is to us. Balances in the world have been re-established, especially thanks to the discoveries made by ships during Renaissance.

This photo is taken from Ali Rad Yousefnia’ presentation

BRISBANE

It is the capital of the Queensland state. It covers an area of 15,842km2. Area of greenspace per capita is 112m2. When we compare this ratio with Ankara, we see a big difference. The city of Brisbane is hilly.

We can see

how topography affects layout and city planning. As the height increases, we see that the settlements were tried to be adapted to the topography, as in the right side of the map. While we could clearly read the grid system in the flatter area on the left, we lost this grid pattern in more inclined and higher areas in order to keep up with the topography.This example helped a lot in how I should work with topography in my mid term project. Instead of providing grid layout everywhere, it was a better way to design the area and put my cluster according to the topography allows me in that area.
This photo is taken from Ali Rad Yousefnia’ presentation
When we look at how the transportation is in these hilly places, we can conclude that we travel the same distance in the hilly area in a longer time.

When we examine the water and transportation in Brisbane, we see the river as transport hub. CityCat, CityHopper, CrossRiver are some transportation services.
  

Brisbane River

It flows  through the city of Brisbane. The river is wide, so we can see it throughout the Brisbane metropolitian area. We can encounter reverse delta. The river flows both from the sea to the land and from the land to the sea. That’s why we can’t say that the water is very clean.

This photo is taken from Ali Rad Yousefnia’ presentation
When we examine the river close, we see that it follows a more curved path, not as a straight line.
 This is due to the river's erosion of the soil over time, and thanks to these curves, the speed of the water is faster in some places and slower in some places instead of being the same everywhere.

Too many floods happened there. In 1893 35 people, in 1974 16 people, in 2011 33 people dead because of flood. We can see that houses along the river, especially, are heavily affected by these floods. Too many homes damaged and new ways have been tried to address this.

These photos are taken from Ali Rad Yousefnia’ presentation
**When we look at Ankara, we also encounter flood events, but we can say that these are generally events that are experienced due to the infrastructure shortage.

The indigenous people of the area use the creek for hunting, and before the construction of a bridge the local population could only cross the creek by boat. We can also see that this area was a part of the broader network of land streching across the landscapes around the Brisbane river.

This photo is taken from Ali Rad Yousefnia’ presentation

In the final part of the presentation, we saw the some students examples. Generally, they tried to provide various opportunities, save the areas, make the city more functional. In addition, as a result of the surveys (the Development Codes of the Brisbane City Plan (2014), Neighborhood Plans (NP)), in areas with high flood risk they tried to create well-connected and publicly accessible spaces, protection of existing vegetation.

In these photos we can see different ways of planning made as solutions.

HOW DO YOU EVALUATE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DESIGN AND NATURE?WHAT WAS IMPORTANT MOMENT/INFORMATION YOU HAVE LEARNT FROM THE TALK?

I realized from this presentation that we cannot distinguish between nature and design. The plans we make must always be in harmony with nature. We should make our plan using the opportunities and tips that nature offers us. Planning the rate in accordance with the topography as Brisbane is hilly, to plan the river as a means of transportation, to be able to build aqueduct bridges are very good examples for the relationship between nature and design. This talk was very useful and informative for me. I did not know what a reverse delta was, this was one of the most important information for me in the talk. It was also very important for me to get to know this city closely, to see how they used the river as a transportation, and to learn how it settled on the river's edge from earlier times. It was also very important information for me to learn about the meeting of garden and agriculture on the common denominator in water and the aqueduct bridge. This presentation helped me on how to use my water source in my midterm, it gave me ideas to make my water source a part of my design.

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